The Analysis of Helicopter Parenting Based on the Lived Experiences of Mothers of Children with Behavioral Problems

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Ph.D. Student in Counseling, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

5 Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Helicopter parenting is a type of parenting style that is used by parents in general and mothers in particular. This study aimed to identify the harms and problems of helicopter parenting based on the lived experiences of mothers of children with behavioral problems.
Methods: This study was conducted qualitatively using the interpretive phenomenology approach in 2019. To this end, 19 mothers living in Bandar Abbas who had children with behavioral problems and visited the counseling center of Hormozgan University were selected via purposive sampling and surveyed using semi-structured interviews. The interview data were collected, recorded, and then coded and classified into main categories.
Results: The themes that emerged in this study were classified into 5 main categories and 17 subcategories. The main categories included “the mother’s experience of the parenting style, harms to the mother, harms to the child, the factors affecting the choice of this parenting style, and maternal views on continuing parenting”.
Conclusion: This study revealed that the helicopter parenting style causes major harm to both mothers and their children. Therefore, to reduce and eliminate the harms associated with helicopter parenting style, experts, educators, psychologists, and counselors should design and implement parenting programs based on psychological components as well as the positive upbringing of the child.

Keywords


  1. Magai DN, Koot HM. Quality of life in children and adolescents in Central Kenya: Associations with emotional and behavioral problems. Qual Life Res. 2019; 28(5):1271-1279. doi: 10.1007/s11136-019-02099-8. 
  2. Chung S, Qing Z, Nancy Ei, Sharlene W. Threat appraisals and coping responses to stressors: Links to chinese children’s behavioral problems and social competence. J Early Adolescence. 2019; 34(2):280-305. doi: 10.1177/0272431617737627.
  3. Weymeis H, Van Leeuwen K, Braet C. Adaptive emotion regulation, academic performance and internalising problems in Flemish children with special educational needs: A pilot study. Eur J Spec Needs Educ. 2019; 34(1):124-135.‏ doi: 1080/
    08856257.2017.1421601.
  4. Zhang Y, Niu L, Zhang D, Ip P, Ho F, Jiang Y, Sun W, Zhu Q, Jiang F. Social-emotional functioning explains the effects of physical activity on academic performance among chinese primary school students: A mediation analysis. J Pediatr. 2019; 208:74-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.045.
  5. Rescorla LA, Althoff RR, Ivanova MY, Achenbach TM. Effects of society and culture on parents' ratings of children's mental health problems in 45 societies. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019; 28(8):1107-1115. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-01268-3.

6.       Weaver CM, Shaw DS, Crossan JL, Dishion TJ, Wilson MN. Parent-child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2015; 46(1):94-107. doi: 10.1007/s10578-014-0455-5.

  1. Teo BH. The development and validation of an instrument to assess perceptions of caregivers of persons with disabilities in singapore: Caregiver stress and support scale. [Dissertation]. Oxford: Miami University; 2019.
  2. Mauno S, Hirvonen R, Kiuru N. Children’s life satisfaction: The roles of mothers’ work engagement and recovery from work. J Happiness Stud. 2018; 19(5):1373-1393.‏ doi: 10.1007/s10902-017-9878-6.
  3. Weijers D, van Steensel FJA, Bögels SM. Associations between psychopathology in mothers, fathers and their children: A structural modeling approach. J Child Fam Stud. 2018; 27(6):1992-2003. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-1024-5.
  4. Stephens MA. Gender differences in parenting styles and effects on the parent-child relationship. [Dissertation]. Texas State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas; 2009.
  5. Cowan PA, Cowan CP, Pruett MK, Pruett K. Fathers' and mothers' attachment styles, couple conflict, parenting quality, and children's behavior problems: An intervention test of mediation. Attach Hum Dev. 2019; 21(5):532-550. doi: 10.1080/
    2019.1582600.
  6. Nazemian A, Shams Zarmehri Z. Effectiveness of triple positive parenting program based on Iranian culture on mother-child relationship and children’s academic achievement. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 2016; 59(2):124-131. doi: 10.22038/mjms.2016.7340. [In Persian].
  7. Hirisave U, Ninan PA, Chandra P. Group-based parent support intervention for children n with academic and behavioural difficulties: A preliminary Journal of Indian Association for Child & Adolescent Mental Health. 2019; 15(1):49-68. ‏
  8. Cowan CP, Cowan PA. Enhancing parenting effectiveness, fathers' involvement, couple relationship quality, and children's development: Breaking down silos in family policy making and service delivery. J Fam Theory Rev. 2019; 11(1):92-111.‏ doi: 1111/jftr.12301.
  9. Hosokawa R, Katsura T. Role of parenting style in children's behavioral problems through the transition from preschool to elementary school according to gender in Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 16(1):21. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16010021.
  10. van der Veen-Mulders L, Hoekstra PJ, Nauta MH, van den Hoofdakker BJ. Preschool children's response to behavioural parent training and parental predictors of outcome in routine clinical care. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2018; 25(1):1-9. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2117.
  11. Nesayan A, Asadi Gandomani R. Prediction of emotion regulation based on attachment styles and perceived parenting styles in Adolescents. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2018; 5(1):1-10. [In Persian]. doi: 10.21859/jpen-05011.
  12. Kalomiris AE, Kiel EJ. Maternal anxiety and physiological reactivity as mechanisms to explain overprotective primiparous parenting behaviors. J Fam Psychol. 2016; 30(7):791-801. doi: 10.1037/fam0000237.
  13. Locke JY. Too much of a good thing? An investigation into overparenting. [Dissertation]. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology; 2014.
  14. Padilla-Walker LM, Son D, Nelson LJ. Profiles of helicopter parenting, parental warmth, and psychological control during emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood. 2019; 3(4):1-13.‏ doi: 10.1177/2167696818823626.
  15. Reed K, Duncan JM, Lucier-Greer M, Fixelle C, Ferraro AJ. Helicopter parenting and emerging adult self-efficacy: Implications for mental and physical health. J Child Fam Stud. 2016; 25, 3136-3149. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0466-x.
  16. van Ingen DJ, Freiheit SR, Steinfeldt JA, Moore LL, Wimer DJ, Knutt AD, et al. Helicopter parenting: The effect of an overbearing caregiving style on peer attachment and self‐ J Coll Couns. 2015; 18(1):7-20.‏ doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1882.2015.00065.x.
  17. Darlow V, Norvilitis JM, Schuetze P. The relationship between helicopter parenting and adjustment to college. J Child Fam Stud. 2017; 26:2291-2298 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0751-3.
  18. Weitkamp K, Seiffge-Krenke I. The association between parental rearing dimensions and adolescent psychopathology: A cross-cultural study. J Youth Adolesc. 2019 Mar;48(3):469-483. doi: 10.1007/s10964-018-0928-0.‏
  19. Schiffrin HH, Yost JC, Power V, Saldanha ER., Sendrick E. Examining the relationship between helicopter parenting and emerging adults’ mindsets using the consolidated Helicopter Parenting Scale. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2019; 28(5): 1207-1219. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01360-5.‏
  20. Cui M, Darling CA, Coccia C, Fincham FD, May RW. Indulgent parenting, helicopter parenting, and well-being of parents and emerging adults. J Child Fam Stud. 2019; 28(3):860-871. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-01314-3.
  21. Haghighatian M, Hashemianfar S, Ahmadian D. The sociological analysis of role of social –structural factors on the gap between environmental attitude and behavior (case study: Citizens’ Kermanshah city). Quarterly of Social Studies and Research in Iran, 2015; 4(4):593-614. [In Persian]. doi: 10.22059/jisr.2015.57069.

28.   Zarei S. Develop and assess the effectiveness of work-family conflict management model based on the experiences of male employees to increase their life satisfaction and job engagement. [Dissertation]. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabataba'i University; 2016. [In Persian].

29.     Abedi Jafari H, Taslimi M, Faghihi A, Sheikhzadeh M. Thematic analysis and thematic networks: A simple and efficient method for exploring patterns embedded in qualitative data municipalities). Strategic Management Thought. 2011; 5(2):151-198. doi: 10.30497/smt.2011.163. [In Persian].

30.     Khodadadi Sangdeh J, Nazari AM, Ahmadi KH, Hasani J. Successful parents’ experiences regarding factors affecting a healthy family: A qualitative research. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2015; 4(2):178-90. [In Persian].

  1. Shokohiyekta MS, Akbari Zardkhaneh S, Parand A, Pooran F. Developing parent-child relationship by new parenting style methods. Psychological Models and Methods. 2012; 3(2):1-16. [In Persian].
  2. Kremer KP, Flower A, Huang J, Vaughn MG. Behavior problems and children's academic achievement: A test of growth-curve models with gender and racial differences. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2016; 67:95-104. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.06.003.
  3. Koca F. An examination of the effects of children’s gender and behavioral problems on the quality of teacher-children relationships. Journal of Human Sciences. 2016; 13(3):4808-4817.‏ doi: 10.14687/jhs.v13i3.4163.
  4. Kamphaus RW, Thorpe JS, Winsor AP, Kroncke AP, Dowdy ET, VanDeventer MC. Development and predictive validity of a teacher screener for child behavioral and emotional problems at school Educ Psychol Meas. 2007; 67(2):342-356.‏ doi: 10.1177/00131644070670021001.
  5. Rahkar Farshi M, Valizadeh L, Zamanzadeh V, Rassouli M, Lees D, Lopez V, Cleary M. A qualitative study of Iranian parents' experiences of interacting with their adolescent children. J Transcult Nurs. 2019; 30(6):569-575. doi: 10.1177/1043659618823916.
  6. Barry CT, Frick PJ, Grafeman SJ. Child versus parent reports of parenting practices: Implications for the conceptualization of child behavioral and emotional problems. Assessment. 2008; 15(3): 294-303. doi: 10.1177/1073191107312212.
  7. Minatoya M, Itoh S, Araki A, Tamura N, Yamazaki K, Miyashita C, et al. Association between fetal adipokines and child behavioral problems at preschool age: The hokkaido study on environment and children's health. Int J Environ Res Public 2018; 15(1):120. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010120.
  8. Alam Alhoda J, Miri M. Factors affecting the development of parenting styles in families of Andimeshk city. Islamic Perspective on Educational Science. 2016; 4(6):5-26. dor: 20.1001.1.24237396.1395.4.6.1.8. [In Persian].
  9. Hellisaz M, Mazaheri MA, Panaghi L, Hassani F. Values of Child-raising among mothers of three-five-years-old children: A Phenomenological Study. Strategy For Culture. 2015; 8(29): 121-148. [In Persian].
  10. Amirpour B, Amini K, Fathi Ahmad Sorai N, Kalhornia Golkar, M. The predicting role of social trust and parenting styles in runaways from home. Strategic Research on Social Problems in Iran. 2016; 4(3):39-50. dor: 20.1001.1.23221453.1394.4.3.3.5. [In Persian].
  11. Moharreri F, Soltanifar A, Khalesi H, Eslami N. The evaluation of efficacy of the positive parenting for parents in order improvement of relationship with their adolescents. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences 2012; 55(2):116-123. doi: 10.22038/mjms.2012.5299. [In Persian].