Surveying Midwives’ Experiences in Performing Self-Care Behaviors: A Qualitative Study

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 MSc Student in Midwifery Counseling, Student Research Committee, Department of Midwifery , Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery , Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Bahonar Blvd., Qazvin, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Midwifery is a profession characterized by physical and psychological stressors. It is mostly practiced by women. Midwifery is one of the essential elements of community health. Besides, midwives’ health and performance are important in their self-care, improve service delivery, and encourage other women to engage in health-promoting behaviors. Analyzing factors affecting self-care by exploring midwives’ experiences can be a step towards improving their health and ultimately community health.
Methods: The present study was conducted using a qualitative approach. The data were collected through 22 semi-structured individual interviews with midwives working in hospitals or health centers. Sampling was continued until data saturation. The collected data were analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach and simultaneously with sampling. The four criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba were used to establish rigor in this study and validate the findings.
Results: Two themes (health as a self-care outcome and different perceptions of health) and 5 main categories were extracted from the data in this study. The first theme was subdivided into three categories including the desire for a healthy life, preferring prevention over treatment, and inefficient self-care, which explains midwives’ awareness of and positive attitudes towards self-care and facilitators of self-care. The second theme (different perceptions of health) was divided into two categories including lack of risk perception and disregard for health behaviors that can account for barriers to midwives’ performance.
Conclusion: To promote midwives’ health, special self-care programs need to be developed by policymakers by taking into account midwives’ motivation for self-care and existing job barriers.

Keywords


  1. Dugani S, Bhutta Z, Kissoon N. Empowering people for sustainable development: the Ottawa Charter and
    beyond. J Glob Health. 2017;7(1):010308. doi: 10.7189/jogh.07.010308.
    2. Golshiri P, G S, Farajzadegan Z, Sahafi M, Najimi A. Is there any association between family function self care
    in women? Journal of Isfahan Medical School. 2012;29(166):2253-2261. [In Persian].
    3. Rafie Far S, Soheimanian A, Sarbandi F, Ardestani M, .Javadi M, NAsiri A. Executive instructions of the National
    Self-Care Program. Tehran: Sculpture; 2015. p. 289. [In Persian].
  2. 4. World-Health-Organizaltion. Self care for health: a Handbook for community health workers and volunteers.
    India: Regional office for south_East Asia; 2013. 160 p.
    5. Rakhshkhorshid M, Navaee M, Nouri N, Safarzaii F. The association of health literacy with breast cancer
    knowledge, perception and screening behavior. Eur J Breast Health. 2018;14(3):144–147. doi: 10.5152/ejbh.
    2018.3757.
    6. Heshmati H, Alizadeh siuki H, Adib-Moghaddam S, Khajavi S, Rafiee N, Behnampour N. Self- care pattern
    related to life style and its related factors among female high school students in Gorgan in 2013. Journal of
    Torbat Heydarieh Univsity Medical Sciences. 2014;2(2):40-49. [In Persian].
    7. Salimi F, Garmaroudi G, Hosseini Saiedi M, Batebi A. Effect of self-care educational program to improving
    quality of life among elderly referred to health centers in Zanjan. J Educ Community Health. 2015;2(2):28-37. [In
    Persian].
    8. Abbasi Moghaddam M, Ghorbanian M, Fesharaki F. Strategies to strengthen self-care behaviors in the
    teachings of Islam teachings. Teb va Tazkiyeh. 2016;24(2):71-82. [In Persian].
    9. Nohi E, Mehdipour R, Abasszadeh A. Musculoskeletal pain relief procedures used by elderly in Kerman. J Qual
    Res Health Sci. 2010;9(1):35-40. [In Persian].
    10. Rahimi Moghadam S, Emakani M, Mohamadyan M, Moosazadeh M, Khanjani N, Layegh M, et al.
    Musculoskeletal disorders and its relation with job stress in midwives. Iranian Occupational Health Association
    (IJOH). 2017;9(1):38-45. [In Persian].
    11. Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Aslani M, Shabani F, Dalvand S, Parizad N. Prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries
    in the healthcare workers of Iranian hospitals: an updated meta-analysis. Environmental Health and Preventive
    Medicine Environ Health Prev Med. 2018;23(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s12199-018-0734-z.
    12. Karimyar Jahromi M, Minaei S, Abdollahifard S, Maddahfar M. The effect of stress management on occupational
    stress and satisfaction among midwives in obstetrics and gynecology hospital wards in Iran. Glob J Health Sci.
    2016;8(9): 54170. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n9p91.
    13. Norkhafizah Saddki M, Norehan Mokhtar M. Cervical cancer and pap smear screening: knowledge, attitude
    and practice among working women in northern state of Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2019; 74(1):8-14.
  3. 14. Ertem G, Kocer A. Breast self-examination among nurses and midwives in Odemis health district in Turkey.
    Indian J Cancer. 2009; 46(3):208-13. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.52955.
    15. Babapoor N, Nasiri R, Mir Rajaee A. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and performance of female personnel
    of Mashhad Azad University hospitals about breast cancer. J Medical Sciences. 2012; 4(1):1-22. [In Persian].
    16. Mostafavi F, Pirzadeh A. Physical activity among employee women based on transtheoretical model. J Educ
    Health Promot. 2015; 4:81. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.171792.
    17. Reisi M, Javadzade S, Sharifirad G. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of breast self-examination among female
    health workers in Isfahan, Iran. J Educ Health Promot. 2013. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.117417.
    18. Mohammad Hassani M, Farahani B, Zohour A, Panahiazar S. Self-care ability based on Orem’s theory in
    individuals with coronary artery disease. Iranian journal Of Crtical Care Nursing. 2010; 3(2):87-91.
    19. Sahebi L, Ayatollahi M. Mental health status of hospitals staffs in Shiraz. Horizon Med Sci. 2007; 12(4):26-33.
    20. Yektatalab S, Kaveh M, Sharif F, FalahiKoshknab M, Petramfar P. Caring for patient with Alzheimers disease in
    nursing homes: A Qualitative Content Analysis. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2012; 1(3):240-253. [In Persian].
    21. Mohamadi Khoshoui R, Salehi S, Saeedian N. A qualitative investigation into components of patient safety
    organizational culture in the medical education centers: a medical errors management approach. J Qual Res
    Health Sci 2020; 8(4):49-58. doi: 10.22062/JQR.2020.90990.
    22. Fakhr-Movahedi A, Salsali M, Negarandeh R, Rahnavard Z. Exploring contextual factors of the nurse-patient
    relationship: A qualitative study. Koomesh. 2011; 13(1):23-34. [In Persian].
    23. Zare E, Simbar M, Shahhoseini Z. Explaining the concept of self-care in adolescents. J Qual Res Health Sci
    2015; 4(4): 395-405. [In Persian].
    24. Polit D, Beck C. Essentials of nursing research. Eight ed. USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2019. 500 p.
    25. Vedadhir A, Sadati S, Ahmadi B. "Women’s Health" from the perspective of health journals in Iran (content
    analysis of selected journals in the field of health). Women’s Research. 2008; 6(2):133-155. [In Persian].
    26. Tavousi M, Sediqi J, Farshid F. Importance of health from the point of view of the Iranian people. Payesh. 2012;
    11(5):611-619. [In Persian].
    27. Foroughan M, Mohammadi S. Perception of healthy lifestyle among Iranian elders: A qualitative research.
    Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016; 10(4):132-139. [In Persian].
  4. 28. Mc Sharry J, Dinneen S, Humphreys M, O'Donnell M, O'Hara M, Smith S, et al. Barriers and facilitators to
    attendance at type 2 diabetes structured education programmes: a qualitative study of educators and attendees.
    Diabet Med. 2019;36(1): 70-79. doi: 10.1111/dme.13805.
    29. Khatibi M, Sanjari M, Farrokhi H, Amirzadeh R, Kashani B. Prevalence of underweightness and obesity as risk
    factors of future cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among children in Iran. World Heart Journal. 2016;
    8(3):251-259. [In Persian].
    30. Kazemian M, Kavian Talviri F, Mirdarevatan S. Assessment the unnecessary costs of family planning with a
    comprehensive care approach. Journal of Health Care Managment (Journal of Health System). 2017; 7(3):45-
    53. [In Persian].
    31. Diem G, Brownson R, Grabauskas V, Shatchkute A, Stachenko S. Prevention and control of noncommunicable
    diseases through evidence-based public health: implementing the NCD 2020 action plan. Global Health Promot.
    2016; 23(3):5-13. doi: 10.1177/17
    57975914567513.
    32. Akbarzadeh T, Shams Ardekani M, Karimpour-Razkenari E, Vahedi Mazdabadi N, Saeedi M, Jahanbakhsh S, et
    al. Investigation of some Iranian foods known as “Ash and Shourba” for diseases prevention from Iranian
    Traditional Medicine point of view. Complementary Medicine Journal. 2016; 6(2): 1535-548. [In Persian].
    33. Kosha A, Najmi M, Mahdavi Hazaveh A, Moghbeli A, Ghanbari A, Yarahmadi S, et al. Major interventions of
    non-communicable diseases in care system Iran’s primary healthcare agency “Irapan”. Tehran: Mojasameh;
    2017. [In Persian].
  5. 34. Yılmaz M, Durmus T. Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behavior among a group of female health
    professionals in Turkey. J Breast health. 2016; 12(1):18-24. doi: 10.5152/tjbh.2015.2715.
    35. Canbulat N, Uzun O. Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors among female health workers in
    Turkey. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2008; 12(2):148-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2007.12.002.
    36. Eyvanbagha R, Kamran A, Nasiri K, Habibi A, Mozafari P, Shamkhali R. Knowledge, attitude and practice of
    female employees in Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Sciences of breast self-examination and its relationship with
    some individual characteristics. Depiction of Health. 2015; 6(3):41-47.
    37. Mehrabian S, Bahrampoor M, Nakhaee N. The attitude of kerman medical students toward psychological
    diseases. Journal of Razi School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman. 2010; 10(1):29-35. [In Persian].
    38. Roshani S, GHaravi Naini N, Bastani S. Experience of women’s relaxation in marital life. Femal & Family Study
    (Female Fam Stud). 2015; 3(2):61-89. [In Persian].
    39. Ketabi A. Dissemination and justification in the popular culture of Iran. Jame Pazhuhi Farhangi. 2012; 3(1):97-
    121. [In Persian].
    40. Dulla D, Daka D, Wakgari N. Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and its practice among female health
    care workers in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Womens Health. 2017; 9: 365-372.
    41. Bayrami R, Taghipour A, Ebrahimipour H. Personal and socio-cultural barriers to cervical cancer screening in
    Iran, patient and provider perceptions: a qualitative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(9):3729-34. doi:
    10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.9.3729.
    42. Emani Z, RayaniM, Borhani F, E D. Effects of empowerment program on attitude toward disease in. J Qual Res
    Health Sci. 2011; 10(2):1-8. [In Persian].
    43. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among
    health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open. 2020; 3(3): 203976-203976.
    doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
    44. Creedy DK, Sidebotham M, Gamble J, Pallant J, Fenwick J. Prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and
    stress in Australian midwives: a cross-sectional survey. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2017; 17:13. doi:
    10.1186/s12884-016-1212-5.
    45. Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hefazi M, Rafiey H, Shariat SV, Sharifi V. National Priority setting for
    mental health in Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2014; 20(3):189-200 . [In Persian].