Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran



Background: Parents are the main caregivers in raising children, and the quality and quantity of knowledge of parenting styles and child-rearing practices are essential for improving the growth, health, and correct upbringing of children. Thus, correct upbringing is one of the very important issues as it requires parental responsibility. To this end, the present study aimed to 
identify the components of effective parenting.
Methods: This study was conducted using a conventional qualitative content analysis method. The participants were 9 family counseling specialists in Ahvaz, who were selected using homogeneous purposive sampling. The data were collected through in-depth and exploratory interviews. The collected data were analyzed using the six-step thematic analysis method proposed by Braun and Clarke.
Results: The analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed 5 main themes in effective parenting, including conscious knowledge, cohesion and intimacy in marital relationship, scientific application of direct and indirect parenting practices, a structured family, and creating a context for growth and availability. 
Conclusion: The results reported in this study can have some implications for parents in using effective child-rearing practices. Besides, family counselors and psychologists can use the results of this study to increase parents’ awareness of effective parenting components and patterns by teaching the components of effective parenting to parents.


Habib Jokar (Google Scholar) (PubMed)

Zabihollah Abbaspour (Google Scholar) (PubMed)

Reza Khojasteh Mehr (Google Scholar) (PubMed


  1. References

    1. Kuppens S, Ceulemans E. Parenting styles: a closer look at a well-known concept. J Child Fam Stud. 2019;28(1):168-81. doi: 1007/s10826-018-1242-x.
    2. Seydi MS, Nazari AM, Hasani J. Identifying parenting myths in the sociocultural context of Kermanshah province, Iran: a qualitative study. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2020;5(2):188-201. [Persian].
    3. Riley D, Bogenschneider K. Do we know what good parenting is? And can public policy promote it? In: Bogenschneider K, ed. Family Policy Matters: How Policymaking Affects Families and What Professionals Can Do. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (LEA); 2002. p. 51.
    4. Eve PM, Byrne MK, Gagliardi CR. What is good parenting? The perspectives of different professionals. Fam Court Rev. 2014;52(1):114-27. doi: 1111/fcre.12074.
    5. Asadi M, Mansourian Y, Nazari AM. Exploring indicators of successful parenting of adolescents among Iranian families: a qualitative study. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2015;3(3):219-31. [Persian].
    6. Galea M, Sciberras C, Mangion M, Galea C. Good parenting. Journal of the Malta College of Family Doctors. 2014;3(2):25-7.
    7. Baumrind D. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. J Early Adolesc. 1991;11(1):56-95. doi: 1177/0272431691111004.
    8. Farshad MR, Najarpourian S, Mohamadi K, Samavi A, Javdan M. The analysis of helicopter parenting based on the lived experiences of mothers of children with behavioral problems. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2021;10(4):253-60. doi: 22062/jqr.2021.195052.1000. [Persian].
    9. Hirata H, Kamakura T. The effects of parenting styles on each personal growth initiative and self-esteem among Japanese university students. Int J Adolesc Youth. 2018;23(3):325-33. doi: 1080/02673843.2017.1371614.
    10. Hosokawa R, Katsura T. Role of parenting style in children’s behavioral problems through the transition from preschool to elementary school according to gender in Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;16(1):21. doi: 3390/ijerph16010021.
    11. Khojasteh Mehr R, Fallahi-Khoshknab M, Hajjari S, Sodani M. Parenting after divorces: a qualitative research. J Res Behav Sci. 2017;15(2):239-45. [Persian].
    12. Dehdast K, Esmaeily M. Ethics-based parenting model: definition and training principles based on Allameh Tabataba’i view point. Journal of counseling research. 2020;19(75):290-326. doi: 29252/jcr.19.75.290. [Persian].
    13. Abbaspour Z, Salehi S, Koraei A, Charkhab N, Kardani A. Development and validation of parent abuse scale (girl-mother version). Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2019;13(2):e83010. doi: 5812/ijpbs.83010. [Persian].
    14. Mirzabeigi H. The effectiveness of training how to bringing up children based on Iranian culture on parents’ growing methods and children’s achievements. Educational Development of Judishapur. 2013;4(3):74-82. [Persian].
    15. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77-101. doi: 1191/1478088706qp063oa.
    16. Jokar H, Yousefi Z, Torkan H. Exploring the components of a comprehensive model governing successful marriages: a qualitative study. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2022;11(3):148-55. doi: 34172/jqr.2022.01. [Persian].
    17. Navaei J, Negarandeh R. Explaining children socialization process based on parents’ experiences. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2017;6(4):376-86. [Persian].
    18. Dinkmeyer D Sr, McKay G, McKay JL. Parenting Teenagers: Systematic Training for Effective Parenting of Teens. STEP Publishers; 2013.
    19. Sadeghi M, Fatehizadeh M, Ahmadi SA, Bahrami F, Etemadi O. Developing a model of healthy family based on family specialists’ opinion (a qualitative research). Family Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2015;5(1):141-70. [Persian].
    20. Ramezani V, Abde-Khodaei MS, Tabibi Z, Aghamohammadian HR. Healthy and pathological aspects of parenting among Iranian families: a qualitative research. Journal of Research in Psychological Health. 2019;13(1):58-80. doi: 52547/rph.13.1.58. [Persian].
    21. Spera C. A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educ Psychol Rev. 2005;17(2):125-46. doi: 1007/s10648-005-3950-1.
    22. Goldenberg A, Goldenberg V. Family Therapy: An Overview. Cengage Learning; 2012.
    23. Skinner E, Johnson S, Snyder T. Six dimensions of parenting: a motivational model. Parenting. 2005;5(2):175-235. doi: 1207/s15327922par0502_3.